Women`s Daily Magnesium Requirements

However, research on the use of magnesium supplements to prevent or reduce migraine symptoms is limited. Three of the four small short-term placebo-controlled studies found a moderate reduction in migraine frequency in patients receiving up to 600 mg/day of magnesium [54]. The authors of a review of migraine prophylaxis suggested that taking 300 mg of magnesium twice daily, alone or in combination with medication, may prevent migraines [55]. Several studies have linked healthy levels of magnesium in the diet to a lower incidence of stroke, but since much of the research on coronary heart disease and stroke comes from observational studies, this is only an association; More data from randomized clinical trials is needed to determine whether higher magnesium levels directly reduce the risk of these conditions, according to a February 2018 review in the journal Nutrients. (8) Dietary surveys conducted in the United States consistently show that many people consume less than the recommended amounts of magnesium. An analysis of data from the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) found that 48% of Americans of all ages absorb less magnesium from food and beverages than their respective AEOIs; Adult males aged 71 years and older, as well as male and female adolescents, are most likely to have low intakes [22]. In a study using NHANES 2003-2006 data to assess mineral intake in adults, the average dietary intake of magnesium alone was higher in supplement users (350 mg for men and 267 mg for women, equal to or slightly higher than their respective EARs) than in non-users (268 mg for men and 234 mg for women) [23]. When supplements were included, the average total magnesium intake was 449 mg for men and 387 mg for women, well above EAR levels. Too much magnesium from the foods you eat is very unlikely because the kidneys excrete excessive intake. But taking large amounts of supplements can cause diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramps. Taking too much magnesium for long periods of time can lead to changes in mental status, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, weakness, low blood pressure, difficulty breathing, and irregular heartbeat.

Magnesium-rich supplements or medications may decrease the absorption of oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax®) for the treatment of osteoporosis [61]. The use of magnesium-rich supplements or medications and oral bisphosphonates should be spaced at least 2 hours apart [57]. Magnesium deficiencies and increased urinary magnesium excretion may occur in individuals with insulin resistance and/or type 2 diabetes [25,26]. Magnesium loss appears to be secondary to higher glucose concentrations in the kidneys, which increases urine production [2]. Chronic treatment with loop diuretics such as furosemide (Lasix®) and bumetanide (Bumex®) and thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide (Aquazid H®) and ethacrynic acid (Edecrin®) may increase magnesium loss in the urine and lead to magnesium deficiency [63]. In contrast, potassium-sparing diuretics such as amiloride (Midamor®) and spironolactone (Aldactone®) reduce magnesium excretion [63]. Magnesium is involved in bone formation and influences the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts [50]. Magnesium also affects parathyroid hormone concentrations and the active form of vitamin D, which are important regulators of bone homeostasis. Several population-based studies have found positive associations between magnesium intake and bone mineral density in both men and women [51].

Other research has found that women with osteoporosis have lower serum magnesium levels than women with osteopenia and those without osteoporosis or osteopenia [52]. These and other findings suggest that magnesium deficiency may be a risk factor for osteoporosis [50]. Most people get more than enough magnesium from food and don`t need to take magnesium supplements. Excessive use of magnesium supplements can be toxic. In addition to what you get from food, the highest dose you should take from magnesium supplements is: A real deficiency occurs with a long-term magnesium-deficient diet, malabsorption and significant losses due to alcohol abuse or the use of medications that break down magnesium (some diuretics, proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics). If you decide to take a magnesium supplement, you need to decide what type you want to take. Different types of magnesium vary in price, how your body can absorb them, and possible side effects. Research suggests that magnesium aspartate, lactate, chloride and citrate are better absorbed by our bodies. While magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate (also known as Epsom salt), which can also be taken orally, are less easily absorbed. More than half of the magnesium in our body is stored in the bones and the rest in various tissues throughout the body.

The American Diabetes Association states that there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of magnesium to improve glycemic control in people with diabetes [46]. It further notes that there is no clear scientific evidence that vitamin and mineral supplementation benefits people with diabetes who do not have underlying nutritional deficiencies. Magnesium deficiency can occur when intake falls below the RDA, but is greater than the amount required to prevent an obvious deficiency. The following groups are more likely than others to be at risk for magnesium deficiency because they typically consume insufficient amounts or have medical conditions (or take medications) that reduce magnesium absorption from the gut or increase body losses. As a study of middle-aged adults and the elderly suggests in the November 2017 issue of Nutrients, eating magnesium-rich foods may play an important role in preventing diseases such as osteoporosis and bone fractures. (11) Symptomatic magnesium deficiency due to low dietary intake in otherwise healthy people is rare, as the kidneys limit the excretion of this mineral in the urine [3]. However, usually low intake or excessive losses of magnesium due to certain health conditions, chronic alcoholism, and/or the use of certain medications can lead to magnesium deficiency. Injected or intravenous magnesium is used to treat other conditions such as eclampsia during pregnancy and severe asthma attacks.

Magnesium is also the main ingredient in many antacids and laxatives. A large, well-designed clinical trial is needed to better understand the contributions of magnesium from food and supplements to heart health and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease [40]. Assessing magnesium status is difficult because most magnesium is found in cells or bones [3]. The most commonly used and readily available method for assessing magnesium status is to measure serum magnesium concentration, although serum concentrations have little correlation with magnesium concentrations or whole-body concentrations in certain tissues [6]. Other methods of assessing magnesium status include measuring magnesium concentration in erythrocytes, saliva and urine; measurement of ionized magnesium concentrations in blood, plasma or serum; and performing a magnesium load test (or “tolerance test”). No method is considered satisfactory [7]. Some experts [4], others [3] consider that the tolerance test (which measures magnesium in the urine after parenteral infusion of a dose of magnesium) is the best method to assess magnesium status in adults. In order to comprehensively assess magnesium status, laboratory tests and clinical evaluation may be required [6]. Magnesium deficiency is linked to factors that promote headaches, including neurotransmitter release and vasoconstriction [54]. People with migraines have lower serum and tissue magnesium levels than those who don`t. Magnesium is essential for bone formation, Foroutan says.

It also indirectly affects bone density, as it is part of the system that regulates important bone nutrients calcium and vitamin D. Therefore, it is important to get enough magnesium to support your skeleton. For more information, please visit the U.S. website. The Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database website (see references), which lists the nutrient content of many foods and where you can browse a complete list of foods by magnesium content. The diet of the majority of Americans provides less than the recommended amounts of magnesium, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with men over 70 and teenage girls most likely to have low intakes. And the deficiency should not be taken lightly, as magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body, reports MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine`s website for consumer health information. Too much dietary magnesium poses no health risk in healthy people, as the kidneys excrete excessive amounts in the urine.[29] .