Some cars, mainly from the 1960s and 1970s, had hydraulically driven variable speed wipers, including the Lincoln Continental `61-`69, the Lincoln Continental Mark III from 69 to 71 (but not all models from the 70s), and the Ford Thunderbird from 63 to 71.  These were driven by the same hydraulic pump used for power steering. Rain-sensitive windshield wipers appeared on different models at the end of the 20th century, one of the first being the Citroën SM. Since early 2006, windshield wipers have been available as an option or standard on all Cadillacs and most Volkswagens and many other mainstream manufacturers. A wiper, wiper or wiper blade (American English) is a device used to remove rain, snow, ice, wash fluid, water or dirt from a vehicle`s windshield. Almost all motor vehicles, including cars, trucks, buses, locomotives and cab boats – and some aircraft – are equipped with one or more windshield wipers, which are generally required by law. The Australian federal government stipulates that every motor vehicle equipped with a windscreen must be equipped with an operational electrically operated wiper system. Most windshield wipers are swivel (or radial): they are attached to a single arm, which in turn is attached to the motor. These are commonly found on many cars, trucks, trains, boats, planes, etc. One of the first patents registered for the windshield wiper came from George J.
Capewell of Hartford, Connecticut, filed on August 6, 1896.  His invention was an automated, motorized windshield wiper for “cars, locomotives and land vehicles.” Most windshield wipers work with a windshield washer system; A pump that delivers a mixture of water, alcohol and detergent (a mixture called windshield washer fluid) from a tank to the windshield. The liquid is dosed through small nozzles on the hood. Conventional nozzles are typically used, but some designs use a fluidic oscillator to disperse the liquid more efficiently. Driving a car without a windshield wiper is illegal in most, if not all, states in the United States. According to the National Road Traffic Act, all vehicles equipped with a windshield are required to use driver-controlled windshield wipers to remove snow, rain and other forms of moisture. The only exception is motorcycles and vintage cars, which are initially made without windshields or windshield wipers. Windshield wipers often endure extreme temperatures, ranging from a sub-zero winter to the scorching African sun. They may have to work for hours, then be quickly caught out of sight and forgotten too often. In the 1960s, as interest in automotive safety grew, engineers began researching various headlight cleaning systems. In late 1968, Chevrolet introduced high-pressure fluid headlight washers for a variety of its 1969 models. In 1970, Saab Automobile introduced headlight wipers throughout its product range.
These operated with a horizontal lifting mechanism with a single motor. They were later replaced with a radial wiper mechanism with individual motors on each headlight. In 1972, headlight cleaning systems became mandatory in Sweden. Every vehicle equipped with a windscreen shall be equipped with one or more effective automatic windscreen wipers, unless the driver can have an adequate view of the road ahead without looking through the windscreen. I`m sure we`ve all experienced those situations where it rains so hard and your windshield wipers are at maximum speed, but it feels like they`re only cleaning the windshield for a split second until a layer of water covers it again. John R. Oishei (1886-1968) founded Tri-Continental Corporation in 1917. This company introduced the first windshield wiper, Rain Rubber, for the two-part split windshields found on many automobiles of the time. Today, Trico Products is one of the world`s largest manufacturers of windshield wipers. [ref. needed] Bosch has the world`s largest wiper factory in Tienen, Belgium, which produces 350,000 wiper blades per day.  The first automatic electric wiper arms were patented by Charlotte Bridgwood in 1917.
 Some vehicles are now equipped with automatic or driver-programmable wipers that detect the presence and amount of rain using a rain sensor. The sensor automatically adjusts the speed and frequency of the leaves to the amount of rain detected. These controls usually have manual priority. S4.2.1. Every passenger car shall be equipped with a windshield washer conforming to the requirements of SAE Recommended Practice J942 (1965) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), except that the reference to the “effective wiping scheme defined in paragraph 3.1.2 of SAE J903, paragraph 3.1.2” in paragraph 3.1 of SAE Recommendation J942 (1965) is deleted and “the zones defined in accordance with paragraph S22.214.171.124 of the vehicle safety standard engine No 104” is inserted. While the legal requirement for a rear wiper changes from place to place, its purpose of clearing the rear window is still important. Without a working rear wiper, it can be harder to see behind your vehicle in traffic or in reverse. Modern windshield wipers usually move parallel (Fig.
1, bottom). However, various Mercedes-Benz models and other cars such as the Volkswagen Sharan use windshield wipers configured to move in opposite directions (Fig. 2), which is mechanically more complex but can avoid leaving a large unwiped corner of the windshield in front of the passenger. A cost advantage for the automaker arises when windshield wipers moving in opposite directions do not need to be repositioned for cars exported to right-hand drive countries such as the UK and Japan. It is also illegal in most states for a driver to drive in the rain without headlights. It is imperative that your headlights are on so that an oncoming driver or pedestrian can see your car in thick fog, snow or rain. S1. Circumference. This standard specifies requirements for windshield wiper and washing systems. A windshield wiper or wiper is a device used to remove rain and dirt, and sometimes even snow and ice, from a windshield or windshield. A windshield wiper usually consists of an arm that pivots at one end and is attached at the other end with a long rubber blade. The blade is swung back and forth on the glass, pushing water out of its surface.
The speed is usually adjustable, with several continuous speeds and often one or more “intermittent” settings. Most vehicles use two synchronized radial alarms, while many commercial vehicles use one or more pantograph arms. In March 1970, French car manufacturer Citroën introduced more advanced rain-sensitive intermittent wipers into its SM model. When the intermittent function was selected, the windshield wiper made a hit. When the windshield was relatively dry, the wiper motor drew a high current, which set the control circuit timer to a long delay for the next wipe. If the engine was consuming low power, it indicated that the glass was still wet and set the timer to minimize deceleration. A common alternative design used on ships, called a clear vision display, avoids the use of rubber wiper blades.