The first copy of the code, in two fragments found in Nippur in present-day Iraq, was translated by Samuel Kramer in 1952. These fragments are in the archaeological museums of Istanbul. Due to its partial preservation, only the prologue and five of the laws were recognizable.  Kramer noted that luck was involved in the discovery: How long will your-Nammu retain his place as the world`s first legislator? Maybe not for much longer. There is evidence that there were legislators in Sumer long before your-Nammu was born. Sooner or later, a lucky “digger” will find a copy of a code of law that predates your-Nammu`s by a century or more. (55) Here is the case, there are several laws that could be considered the oldest in the world. As nationalism developed in the 18th and 19th centuries, the lex mercatoria was incorporated into the local law of countries under new civil codes. Of these, the French Napoleonic Code and the German Civil Code became the most influential. Unlike English common law, which consists of huge volumes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and apply to judges.
Today, however, there are signs that civil law and common law are converging. European Union law is codified in the Treaties, but develops through the case law of the European Court of Justice. If you`ve ever started a business, there was probably a step you took at the beginning where you received letterhead, business cards, and maybe office supplies. Unlike the Ur-Nammu Codex, the Lipit-Ishtar Codex had to be more precise to meet the needs of a more complex society. Fines continue to act as a deterrent, but more detailed laws are needed for family law and commercial contracts. It could no longer be assumed that everyone under the law was acting with the same understanding of what was good behaviour. The code of Lipit-Ishtar is also fragmentary, but among the laws were: In the 30th year of his reign, Hammurabi began to expand his kingdom along the Tigris and Euphrates valleys and overthrow the kingdoms of Assyria, Larsa, Eshunna and Mari until all of Mesopotamia was under his rule. None of this really has to do with what your company actually does, but it`s all part of the infrastructure of doing business. It is an overhead cost, but it is a necessary overhead. “Laws are organized in the casuistic form of if-(crime), then – (punishment)-a pattern to be followed in almost all subsequent codes. For the oldest known code of laws in history, it is considered remarkably progressive because it provides for fines for bodily injury, in contrast to the later principle of lex talionis (“an eye for an eye”) of Babylonian law; However, the capital crimes of murder, theft, adultery and rape are punishable by death.
The concept of law as an institution that protects the weak from the strong, as a force before which all peoples are equal, fosters respect and admiration not only for the laws but also for the legislator. Although Hammurabi conquered the cities by conquest, there is no sign of revolt or dissent during the last five years of his reign. People realized that the laws of Hammurabi worked in their own interest and maintained them, promoting greater stability and allowing cultural progress. Some of the oldest laws existed before they were drafted. As such, the oldest written law in the world is a different law from the oldest law that has ever existed. In all likelihood, I would have completely missed Nammu`s original tablet if it hadn`t been for a favorable letter from F. R. Kraus, now professor of cuneiform studies at Leiden University in Holland.
His letter states that a few years ago, as part of his duties as curator at the Istanbul Museum, he came across two fragments of a panel bearing Sumerian laws, “connected” the two pieces and catalogued the resulting panel as number 3191 of the museum`s Nippur collection. As Sumerian tablets of the law are extremely rare, I immediately had number 3191 brought to my office. There it was, a sun-baked tablet, light brown, 20 by 10 centimeters. More than half of the writing was destroyed, and what was left seemed hopelessly incomprehensible at first. But after a few days of concentrated study, its contents began to become clear and take shape, and I realized with great excitement that what I was holding in my hand was a copy of the oldest code of law known to mankind. Some modern scholars reject the term “Sumerian Renaissance”, claiming that there was never a decline requiring rebirth, but Sumerian accounts claim that the Gutian period was a time when “grass grew high on the roads of the country” and no grain was grown or fish caught, and there was no wine or syrup due to mismanagement under Gutian rule (Kriwaczek, 130-135). your-Nammu, who presented himself as the true successor of the Sargonids, enlivened the country with his policies, which included public parks, irrigated orchards and gardens in and around cities, and patronage of the arts. He restored, or at least improved, the Sumerian economy by offering jobs to anyone who wanted or needed them. Scientist Marc van de Mieroop comments: They had never met before. As institutions, they had no rules or traditions. They had to elect leaders like a Speaker of the House. They had to figure out how to address themselves.
The Mesopotamian judicial system relied mainly on customary law, confirmed by the assembly of elders or municipal officials or courts. Judges could be elected from the local community or appointed by the king. Interested parties presented their own case and brought witnesses with them if necessary. The trials, or at least the judgments, were written, and many plaques from most historical periods have been preserved. In the absence of witnesses, the accused could be sent back to an ordeal, such as being thrown into a river or canal. The innocence of the person was proven when the “river” rejected the perpetrator. Defendants and plaintiffs had to take an oath on divine emblems, such as the sun disk representing the god of justice, Shamash. His family descends from the Amorites, a semi-nomadic tribe in western Syria, and his name reflects a mixture of cultures: Hammu, which means “family” in Amoritic, combined with rapi, which means “great” in Akkadian, the everyday language of Babylon.
The term ancient or archaic Greece refers to the years 700-480 BC. Chr., not in the Classical Age (480-323 BC), which is known for its art, architecture, and philosophy. Archaic Greece experienced advances in art, poetry and technology, but is known as the age when polis, or city-state. During the Byzantine Empire, the Justinian Codex was expanded and remained in force until the fall of the Empire, although it was never officially introduced to the West. Instead, after the fall of the Western Empire and in the former Roman lands, the ruling classes relied on the Theodosian Code to regulate the natives and Germanic customary law for Germanic immigrants—a system known as popular law—until the two laws merged. Since the collapse of the Roman judicial system, legal disputes have been settled according to Germanic custom by assemblies of learned jurists in strict ceremonies and oral hearings that relied heavily on witness testimony. As kings were considered the guardians of law and order, they often issued legal reforms, debt discharges and decrees, which were recorded in writing and are often referred to as legal texts, although there is no evidence that the courts ever referred to such edicts. (105) Ur-Nammu understood how important it was to identify with these heroes of the past, who were no longer remembered in his time as oppressors, but as great father figures who had cared for the country and its people. He thus presented himself as such a father figure and established a patrimonial state that encouraged his subjects to consider themselves as his children and all as members of the same family. However, for this model to work, the population had to accept it.
Scholar Paul Kriwaczek comments: Although other written Mesopotamian laws discovered later, including the Sumerian “Lipit-Ishtar” and “your-Nammu,” are hundreds of years older than the Hammurabi legislator, Hammurabi`s reputation remains that of a pioneering legislator who, in the words of his monument, worked to “prevent the strong from oppressing the weak and to ensure that justice is done to widows and orphans.” “Myth has two main functions,” wrote poet and scholar Robert Graves in 1955. The first is to answer embarrassing questions children have, such as, “Who created the world? How will it end? Who was the first man? Where do souls go after death? » . The second function of . It is an example of the philosophy that influenced its legislation: “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth”. In any event, the perpetrator would be reimbursed in the same way. He recognized the power of religious beliefs to influence personal behavior and presented his laws as if they had been received by the gods.